Special Year 7 History Assignment.

The Motte and Bailey Castle.

The Square Keep Castle.

The Shell Keep Castle.

The Concentric Castle.

Castles after the Invention of Cannon

Assignment.

Writing frame (1)

Writing frame (2)

 

How did Castles Change over the Years?

 

The Motte and Bailey Castle.

In 1066 William the Conqueror and his Norman followers built Motte and Bailey castles all over England to control the people. They built them on hilltops – or they built their own earth mound to put them on. The castles were easy and quick to build as they were made out of wood. They had a big tower for defence on top of the motte and the bailey was where the Normans could live.

 

A Motte and Bailey Castle eg Hastings.

To see more examples of Motte and Bailey Castles, go to:

http://www.castlewales.com/motte.html

 

The Square Keep Castle.

The old motte and bailey castles were no good in the long run because they were made out of wood which was not very strong and which rotted. So the Normans replaced them with big square castles made of stone. Stone was much stronger. The castles were also much taller and bigger. The Lord and his family and followers all lived inside it. It was so big that everything they needed was inside.

 Rochester Castle,Kent,England.

http://www.castles-abbeys.co.uk/Rochester-Castle.html

 

The Shell Keep Castle.

After the Year 1100 another change in the way castles were designed took place. The old square keeps were not so good because it was easy to dig underneath the corners of the keep and make it fall down. Instead they started to build castles with one set of round walls. These were good because the soldiers could see all around and also the castles were harder to knock down. The one weak spot was the gateway – so gatehouses were made very strong with towers on each side and a drawbridge. They sometimes had a portcullis which was a massive wooden grating that could be slid up and down.

Restormel Castle is a Norman stone ringwork and bailey fortress and was the home to Edward, the Black Prince. The huge circular shell keep has a complete ring of buildings inside and is encased by a deep ditch.

http://www.castleuk.net/castle_lists_south/200/restormelcastle.htm

 

The Concentric Castle.

These were built in the 1200’s to improve upon the shell keep castles. Soldiers returning from the Crusades had seen these kinds of castles abroad and brought these ideas back with them. The new idea was to have two sets of walls, one inside the other. If the attackers broke in through the outer walls, they would be trapped in between the two walls and killed. The inside wall was higher so the defenders could fire things down on the attackers even if they were attacking the smaller outside wall. Concentric Castles also had towers placed along the wall so that the defenders could see anyone attacking wherever they were.

Beaumaris Castle.

 

http://www.castlewales.com/beaumar.html

 

Castles after the Invention of Cannon

(or Gun Platform Castles).

When cannons were invented, tall walls were no good. A cannon ball which smashed into the bottom of a tall wall would bring the whole wall crashing down! So now defenders built lower walls but made them much thicker so that the cannon balls would not go through them. They also built a solid roof on top to protect the men inside from cannon balls. Inside the men felt safe again!

Deal Castle

Deal Castle

Deal Castle is a striking example of one of a series of forts built by Henry VIII in the shape of the Tudor rose with six petals. There is a similar property at Walmer, just down the coast, which is the official residence of the Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. There also used to be yet another, Sandown Castle, at the North end of Deal, on the shore close to where the Royal Cinque Ports Golf Club now stands. The forts were built at a time when Henry had turned his back on the Catholic religion and believed he needed defence from the possible intrusions of other European powers that remained faithful to Rome.

http://www.digiserve.com/peter/deal-cas.htm

 

Special History Assignment.

How did Castles Change over the Years?

 

Having looked carefully at the pictures of different castles through the ages and read the writing that goes with them, write an essay with the title ‘Castles – Change and Continuity’. In your essay you must mention the following things:

Different types of castle in chronological order (choose from motte and bailey, gun platform castle, shell keep castle, concentric castle and square keep castle)

Try to give a named example of that type of castle (look on the internet to help you)

The changes that took place in castle design

Why these changes took place

What things about castle design that stayed the same over the years (or continuities)

 

Use the writing grids on the following pages to help you.

Your teacher will tell you which one to use.


Special History Assignment

How did Castles change over the years?

Writing frame (1)

The first few lines of each paragraph have been started for you. Copy out and complete the paragraphs.

Introduction: The Normans were the first to build castles in the Middle Ages. They built them for____________________________________________

Paragraph 1: The first type of castles were called_________________________________________. They were_____________________________________

Paragraph 2: The next type of castles were called________________________________________ The things that stayed the same about castle design were _________________________________ The things that changed about castle design were ________________________________________________

Continue with a paragraph about each type of castle.

Conclusion: Overall the best type of castles were _____________________________________ this is because ____________________________________.

 


Special History Assignment

How did Castles change over the years?

Writing frame (2)

Copy out and complete the essay by following the instructions as you go.

Introduction: The Normans were the first to build castles in the Middle Ages. They built them because

Choose from: they wanted protection against the Saxons/ they wanted a large home to show off to others

 

Paragraph 1: The first type of castles were called ___________________. These were made out of ______________because

Choose from: stone was too heavy to carry/ they were in a hurry

 

Paragraph 2: The next type of castles were called ______________________. There were some things that stayed the same with these castles because they still had _______________________________These were different to the motte and bailey castles because

Describe the way that they looked and what they were made out of. How were they better?

 

Paragraph 3: The next type of castle was called the shell keep. These castles were still made out of __________________________________These were better than before because

What shape were they? Why was this stronger?

 

Paragraph 4: What type of castle comes next? How many walls does it have? Why is it stronger? Is there anything that is the same about it?

 

Paragraph 5: What is the last castle called? Why is it shorter than the others? Is there anything that this castle has in common with the rest?

 

Conclusion: The castle that was the best of all was ___________________________. This is because _________________________________________________